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This article was originally published in English (with a Japanese abstract) in Christ and the World (annual monograph of Tokyo Christian University), vol. 12 (2002), pp. 55-76 and is an extended article originally presented at the conference “Cultures and Christianity A.D. 2000” in Hoeven, the Netherlands. The current version was edited after a presentation by Dr. Inagaki at Dordt College for publication in Pro Rege. When asked recently by Dordt Professor Roger Henderson of his own stand on Emergence theory, Dr. Inagaki replied that “only God is the cause of the emergence of the world and human being, and there is no room for autonomous independent evolution. The concept of emergence here is completely theistic emergence. I cannot believe [in an] autonomous emergence due to . . . naturalistic power. I reject even the so-called methodological naturalism.”

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