Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)


Graduate Education

First Advisor

Suzanna C. Kok

Second Advisor

Lloyd Den Boer


This two-year study was designed to investigate the effects of grade retention on a child's academic progress, English proficiency, and social development. All students (n=17) were native Spanish-speaking children, living in a Spanish speaking country, learning in an English-medium school. Each retained child was matched with a child in a control group and a child in a socially promoted group, based on age, sex, Sanford Achievement Test scores, and final reading, language, and math scores. The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHSCS) and the Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test (CREVT) were administered in the fall and spring for two consecutive years. Final reading, language, and mathematics scores were collected at the end of each year, and teaching rating scale surveys were collected at the conclusion of each semester. Because of the relatively small sample size, the results were analyzed through the use of bar graphs and the description of basic trends in changes among all three groups of students. The results indicated retention is an ineffectual means for increasing English proficiency and academic progress. Alternative educational practices must be considered.


Action Research Report Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Education