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Book Chapter

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Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science


statistics, mind-set, beliefs, affect, gender


This chapter documents the effects of training in incremental theories of intelligence on students in introductory statistics courses at a liberal arts university in the US. Incremental theories of intelligence examine the beliefs individuals hold of knowledge and how it is attained. An individual with an incremental theory of intelligence believes that intelligence can be developed. The research examined differences by gender in mastery of statistics and attitudes toward statistics for students who received growth mind-set training. A pre-test, post-test design utilised the Students’ Attitudes Toward Statistics© instrument and the Comprehensive Assessment of Outcomes in a first Statistics course. An ANCOVA revealed that females gained more than males on their value of statistics (F(1, 63) 9.40, MSE 3.79, p .003, η2 P 0.134) and decreased less for effort expended to learn statistics (F(1, 63) 4.41, MSE 4.07, p .040, η2 P 0.067). Females also gained mastery of statistical concepts at a greater rate (F(1, 63) 5.30, MSE 0.06, p .025, η2 P 0.080) indicating a possible path to alleviate the under-representation of females in STEM.


  • Chapter from the e-book Affect and Mathematics Education edited by Markku S. Hannula, Gilah C. Leder, Francesca Morselli, Maike Vollstedt, and Qiaoping Zhang
  • Part of the ICME-13 Monographs book series (ICME13Mo) published by SpringerOpen
  • Online access:

Source Publication Title

Affect and Mathematics Education



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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License.